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AI Cobots and Exoskeletons: The Case of AI Self-Driving Cars

AI Cobots and Exoskeletons: The Case of AI Self-Driving Cars

By Lance Eliot, the AI Tendencies Insider

I keep in mind the primary time that I noticed a cobot in motion. It was on a manufacturing unit flooring the place I had beforehand helped put in place a robotic arm that carried out automotive elements meeting. This cobot, thought-about a collaborative robotic or a co-robot, or some assert it must be known as a “cooperative” robotic, contained a few of the newest new tech in AI.

First, let me inform you concerning the “aged” robotic arm that I had put in place a number of years earlier. It was enclosed in an general steel-mesh cage that served to stop people from getting too near the swinging mechanical arm. With the velocity and power of the robotic arm, a human caught unawares and inside the vary of the arm would certainly get injured. There was little to virtually no sensory functionality on the robotic arm for detecting any intrusions into its working area. This considerably low-tech “dumb” robotic arm was capable of swing back-and-forth unimpeded to do its job.

Within the case of the cobot, it was designed and constructed to be close to to people and work in unison with people. I had finished a number of the underlying analysis in my college lab once I was a professor that concerned a number of tasks pioneering cobot early improvement. Now, I had been invited to see a cobot in motion on a manufacturing unit flooring, doing so inside earshot of the old-timer robotic arm that I had programmed some years prior.

The cobot had no protecting cage surrounding it. Certainly, there was a workstation just some ft from the cobot that housed a human employee. The human employee would do a part of an meeting after which hand over the partially carried out half to the cobot. The cobot then did its effort of furthering the meeting. As soon as the cobot had completed, it then slid the half again to the human employee. The human employee made a couple of ending touches after which positioned the half onto a conveyer belt that may take it to the set up part of the manufacturing course of.

There have been some AI builders that have been hoping to finally substitute the human employee by additional refining the cobot, permitting the cobot to do the complete effort of the meeting for the half (finally aiming to be a totally “lights out” warehouse operation with none human staff per se). At this time limit, the intricate points of the meeting required quite a lot of dexterity. The cobot was primarily an arm with pincher-like grippers and lacked any absolutely articulating robotic fingers. It was as much as the human to make use of their very own human arms and human fingers for the fantastic activity of weaving wiring all through the half.

This splitting of the duty made good sense in that the robotic arm might shortly undertake its effort and was in a position to take action as a “associate” with the human. If the cobot might have executed all of its work and accomplished the half meeting sufficiently that the half might transfer ahead to the set up part, you in all probability wouldn’t have wanted the human and cobot to work in unison. As an alternative, as a result of the cobot was primarily in the midst of the meeting, taking a partial meeting from the human, and handing again an extra partially assembled half, the intermixing of the human and cobot made sense.

To keep away from having the human in-the-loop, it will be essential to both get a cobot that had higher dexterity with human-like robotic fingers or contemplate redesigning the half in order that it might be assembled in another way. The AI builders had studied the prevailing meeting course of that had beforehand concerned people doing the whole three steps, the pre-wiring, the meeting, and the post-wiring, and had determined that since they have been informed that the redesign of the half was not going to happen, they might then craft a cobot to tackle the step 2 within the course of.

I earlier talked about that there was a workstation adjoining to the cobot that housed the human assembler operator. Genuinely there have been 4 such workstations in a star-like sample that have been located across the cobot. The cobot would do its factor for one human operator, after which swing to the subsequent human operator to take their partially assembled half, and so forth, doing this for every human in a successive sequence.

Let’s quantity the people as operators H1, H2, H3, and H4.

H1 does pre-wiring, the cobot grabs the half, does its factor, and slides the half again over to human H1 for the operator to do the post-wiring after which end the meeting. The second that the half was sliding over to H1 from the cobot, the cobot was already swinging subsequent to human H2. The cobot would take the pre-wired half from H2, proceed the meeting, and slide it again over to human H2. Swinging to human H3, the cobot would take the identical actions, after which swing to human H4, after which the cobot would swing as soon as once more to human H1 and begin the loop once more. This was repeated time and again.

I suppose a human sitting the place the cobot was anchored may get dizzy of all-day swinging round and round in a decent loop. Not the cobot. It did its factor with out grievance or nausea. The 4 people that sat inside arm’s attain have been capable of considerably chat concerning the cobot amongst themselves (the cobot was comparatively silent and didn’t make a lot noise, there was no squeaking or beeping, however the manufacturing unit flooring was general fairly noisy and so the people needed to speak-up to be heard over the din of the manufacturing unit itself).

Cobot within the Loop

The cobot was not listening to the human staff per se. It did although have an audio enter functionality akin to Alexa or Siri. A human employee might yell out a codeword to get the eye of the cobot after which state a command, akin to “cease!” or different verbal directions. Admittedly, I did marvel if the cobot could be “listening” and even recording the scuttlebutt being spoken by the 4 people surrounding the cobot. The top of the manufacturing unit insisted that the cobot audio detection was solely scanning for the activation codeword and in any other case was not recording something. I’ll assume this was a truthful rationalization (however, if I used to be one of many human staff, I might be skeptical!).

If a human employee was late in handing over their half, the cobot would skip the human and proceed to the subsequent human employee within the sequence. Fake that human H2 had fallen behind. When the cobot completed the trouble underway with human H1, it will swing to H2, but when H2 didn’t readily handover the half, the cobot would swing to human H3. At that juncture, the human H3 won’t but be prepared, because the individual wasn’t anticipating the cobot at that second. The cobot would watch for the human H3 to be prepared.

The cobot had been programmed to maintain monitor of the variety of occasions that any of the human staff in its star have been late in doing their respective meeting. This lateness metric was then offered to a human supervisor. If the human supervisor observed that a human employee was falling behind excessively, the human supervisor would come over to speak with the human employee to seek out out what was happening.

In that sense, the human staff of the star, people H1, H2, H3, H4 thought-about the cobot to be a little bit of a tattletale. I suppose that if the cobot might actually speak, it might inform the people H1, H2, H3, and H4 that there was nothing it might do to stop itself from being a tattletale. It had been programmed to take action. What would you like it to do, misinform the boss?

Anyway, the people in a star have been working steadily and didn’t have a lot time to do any idle banter or messing round. The motion of the cobot served to even be a reminder of the timing concerned in getting your human work completed. As quickly because the cobot returned your half to you, you knew that you simply needed to end the pre-wiring, put the half onto the conveyor belt, get the subsequent half, do the pre-wiring, and be prepared by the point the cobot had swung round in sequence and ended-up again at your workstation.

I observed that the human staff would maintain their eye on the cobot. At first, I assumed that could be as a result of considerations about getting whacked by the cobot.

Permit me to elucidate.

My years earlier robotic arm was safely nestled inside a metal cage, in contrast to the cobot. The one probability of injuring a human with the aged robotic arm can be that a human would wish to open the door to the metal cage and go into the world reserved for the robotic arm. This is able to be silly to do. In reality, it might be almost unattainable to get your self hit by the robotic arm as a result of the second you opened the cage door, I had programmed the robotic arm to return to a halt. This was a prudent security precaution.

For the cobot, the 4 people arrayed in a star across the cobot have been all and every utterly weak to probably getting hit by the cobot. Suppose that the cobot “misplaced its thoughts” and went wild, swinging itself round and waving its arm crazily. These 4 people would doubtless get hit. The velocity of the cobot was so quick that I doubted that any of the people would have been capable of duck or retreat previous to getting hit. The one approach I might envision avoiding getting hit can be if the cobot made some preliminary indication that it was going berserk, through which case the people may need adequate time to cover or run away.

To stop the cobot from going right into a human-damaging berserk mode, the AI builders had put sensors onto the cobot that have been meant to detect the prospect of hitting a human. In the event you put your human arm up and positioned it into the trail of the cobot, the cobot would detect the intrusion and would cease itself from shifting in that path. It might additionally emit a prerecorded message telling the close by people that there was an intrusion within the path of the cobot.

I attempted this to see how well-programmed the cobot was. I sat at a workstation and jammed my arm into the trail the place the cobot would quickly be touring. Positive sufficient, it detected my arm and did the right stoppage process. I questioned whether or not I might “trick” the cobot by swinging my arm into the trail on the final potential second, tempting destiny by not permitting sufficient time probably for the cobot to make the detection after which come to a halt.

Since I didn’t need to probably lose my precise arm, I used a stick as an alternative. I raised up the keep on with a final cut up second to go earlier than the cobot arm would have reached my workstation. I used to be relieved to see that the cobot detected the stick and as soon as once more exercised the right stoppage operation. The stopping time was fairly fast and the detection functionality appeared strong. Usually, I deduced that the security function was probably ok that it might be some oddball quirk earlier than a human might get harm.

Once I say that it might be a quirk, we don’t understand how properly the cobot had been exhaustively examined. Perhaps there have been some unknown or hidden loopholes within the detection or the stopping process. Perhaps there are some bugs in it. Who is aware of? Figuring out that you’re sitting eight hours a day inside the grasp of a gorilla that would tear off your limbs, this for me can be considerably disconcerting.

For the debugging of complicated techniques, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/debugging-of-ai-self-driving-cars/

For ghosts in complicated methods, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/ghosts-in-ai-self-driving-cars/

For the risks of code obfuscation, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/code-obfuscation-for-ai-self-driving-cars/

For security features, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/safety-and-ai-self-driving-cars-world-safety-summit-on-autonomous-tech/

The human staff although had seemingly turn out to be snug with the cobot. The one purpose they have been watching it was that they knew the troubles they might get into in the event that they weren’t prepared when the cobot showed-up at their workstation.

For Amy, sitting at workstation H1, she knew that when the cobot had reached Eric at workstation H3, it was time for her to have positioned the half onto the conveyor belt and already be beginning the pre-wiring of the subsequent half that was meant for her effort. Had Amy seen that the cobot was at Judith on workstation H4, it will recommend that Amy was going to be late in having her half prepared when the cobot obtained completed at H4.

It was virtually as if the human staff hoped they might mentally convey to the cobot to decelerate once they wanted it to allow them to catch-up. A human sitting within the cobot’s place might maybe be negotiated or pleaded with. Hey, give me a break, will you, and nudge down only a fraction of a second to let me take a breath and be prepared for once you swing over to me. There was no such negotiation or dialogue with the cobot.

After “visiting” with the cobot and observing it in motion, together with watching the human staff and discussing the cobot with them, I subsequent went right into a convention room that was hooked up to the manufacturing unit flooring. There the R&D group confirmed me a prototype of a cobot exoskeleton.

In case you’ve not seen a cobot exoskeleton, think about that you’re sporting a type of go well with of armor, however it’s in a skeleton or skeletal sort of form. Some refer to those as exoframes or exosuits.

There are “dumb” exoskeletons that exist right now for permitting people to raise heavy weights. You placed on the exoskeleton. You get snug with the way it operates. You possibly can then seize a heavy field to be lifted. The exoskeleton takes the brunt of the load and the lifting. You’ll be able to repeatedly carry heavy objects and by-and-large the exoskeleton is taking the pressure and strain.

In some instances, the exoskeleton is only mechanical and unpowered. In different instances, the exoskeletion is powered and it’s electrical or battery energy that permits it to particularly do the heavy lifting or tackle comparable sorts of duties. You need to use the exoskeleton for extra than simply heavy lifting of objects. Suppose you’re having to hammer a nail that’s on the ceiling and it’s going to take a very long time to hammer that nail. Your arms reaching over your head will ultimately appear to get heavy and will probably be arduous so that you can maintain your arms raised. With an exoskeleton, you may probably hold your arms raised all day lengthy and never really feel a lot ache or angst in doing so.

Cobot Exoskeleton a “Sensible” Model of an Exoskeleton

A cobot exoskeleton is taken into account a “sensible” model of an exoskeleton. The notion is so as to add AI to the exoskeleton and switch it right into a collaborative robotic that you simply put on. The cobot that I had seen on the manufacturing unit flooring was just about anchored into a selected spot on the ground. It was not shifting and was not meant to be moveable. Suppose as an alternative that a human wore a cobot, permitting the human and the cobot to probably transfer round. Ergo, a cobot exoskeleton.

For the aged robotic arm that I had setup for the manufacturing unit, a few of the arm’s directions had been programmed, whereas different elements of the arm’s efforts have been undertaken by a Machine Studying (ML) strategy. We had moved the robotic arm to point out it what we needed it to do, and after repeated such steerage it progressively “programmed” to how we needed it to carry out. Some cobots have an analogous functionality of utilizing deep studying or Machine Studying. A complicated cobot exoskeleton would likewise have such a ML function.

For my article about imitation as a deep studying method, see: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/imitation-deep-learning-technique-self-driving-cars/

For Ensemble Machine Studying, see my article: https://aitrends.com/ai-insider/ensemble-machine-learning-for-ai-self-driving-cars/

For Federated Machine Studying, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/federated-machine-learning-for-ai-self-driving-cars/

For my article about biomimicry, see: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/biomimicry-robomimicry-ai-self-driving-cars-machine-learning-nature/

What does this should do with AI self-driving automobiles?

On the Cybernetic AI Self-Driving Automotive Institute, we’re creating AI software program for self-driving automobiles. One fascinating exploratory undertaking includes using a cobot exoskeleton for functions of aiding a human within the driving of a automotive. I understand this appears a slightly farfetched strategy to driving, and I agree it appears an unlikely path towards the autonomous or semi-autonomous driving of automobiles, however I figured you’d be intrigued by the thought and need to find out about it.

Permit me to elaborate.

I’d wish to first make clear and introduce the notion that there are various ranges of AI self-driving automobiles. The topmost degree is taken into account Degree 5. A Degree 5 self-driving automotive is one that’s being pushed by the AI and there’s no human driver concerned. For the design of Degree 5 self-driving automobiles, the auto makers are even eradicating the fuel pedal, brake pedal, and steering wheel, since these are contraptions utilized by human drivers. The Degree 5 self-driving automotive shouldn’t be being pushed by a human and neither is there an expectation that a human driver can be current within the self-driving automotive. It’s all on the shoulders of the AI to drive the automotive.

For self-driving automobiles lower than a Degree 5, there have to be a human driver current within the automotive. The human driver is at present thought-about the accountable social gathering for the acts of the automotive. The AI and the human driver are co-sharing the driving activity. Regardless of this co-sharing, the human is meant to stay absolutely immersed into the driving activity and be prepared always to carry out the driving activity. I’ve repeatedly warned concerning the risks of this co-sharing association and predicted it can produce many untoward outcomes.

For my general framework about AI self-driving automobiles, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/framework-ai-self-driving-driverless-cars-big-picture/

For the degrees of self-driving automobiles, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/richter-scale-levels-self-driving-cars/

For why AI Degree 5 self-driving automobiles are like a moonshot, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/self-driving-car-mother-ai-projects-moonshot/

For the risks of co-sharing the driving activity, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/human-back-up-drivers-for-ai-self-driving-cars/

Let’s focus herein on the true Degree 5 self-driving automotive. A lot of the feedback apply to the lower than Degree 5 self-driving automobiles too, however the absolutely autonomous AI self-driving automotive will obtain probably the most consideration on this dialogue.

Right here’s the standard steps concerned within the AI driving process:

  • Sensor knowledge assortment and interpretation
  • Sensor fusion
  • Digital world mannequin updating
  • AI motion planning
  • Automotive controls command issuance

One other key facet of AI self-driving automobiles is that they are going to be driving on our roadways within the midst of human pushed automobiles too. There are some pundits of AI self-driving automobiles that regularly seek advice from a utopian world through which there are solely AI self-driving automobiles on the general public roads. Presently there are about 250+ million typical automobiles in the USA alone, and people automobiles usually are not going to magically disappear or develop into true Degree 5 AI self-driving automobiles in a single day.

Certainly, using human pushed automobiles will final for a few years, probably many many years, and the arrival of AI self-driving automobiles will happen whereas there are nonetheless human pushed automobiles on the roads. This can be a essential level since because of this the AI of self-driving automobiles wants to have the ability to cope with not simply different AI self-driving automobiles, but in addition cope with human pushed automobiles. It’s straightforward to ascertain a simplistic and moderately unrealistic world during which all AI self-driving automobiles are politely interacting with one another and being civil about roadway interactions. That’s not what will be occurring for the foreseeable future. AI self-driving automobiles and human pushed automobiles will want to have the ability to deal with one another.

For my article concerning the grand convergence that has led us to this second in time, see: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/grand-convergence-explains-rise-self-driving-cars/

See my article concerning the moral dilemmas dealing with AI self-driving automobiles: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/ethically-ambiguous-self-driving-cars/

For potential laws about AI self-driving automobiles, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/assessing-federal-regulations-self-driving-cars-house-bill-passed/

For my predictions about AI self-driving automobiles for the 2020s, 2030s, and 2040s, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/gen-z-and-the-fate-of-ai-self-driving-cars/

Returning to the subject of cobots and exoskeletons, let’s think about some elements concerning the driving of a automotive and using automation to take action.

One strategy to driving a automotive includes constructing all the automation into the automotive itself, together with the sensors to detect the environment, and the pc processors to run the AI software program that does the driving, and so forth. I’ll name this the “AI-integrated” strategy.

We’d determine that fairly than making an attempt to combine the automation into the automotive, maybe we’d as an alternative construct a robotic that may get into and out of the automotive, akin to a human being, and the robotic can be imbued with the power to drive a automotive. I’ll name this the “AI-robotic” strategy.

For these of you which have by no means thought-about the thought of getting a robotic drive a automotive, it’s worthwhile to take a second and ponder the matter. Think about that when you might construct such a robotic, it might then drive presumably any of the hundreds of thousands of at the moment’s typical automobiles. There can be no want to vary the design of automobiles. There can be no have to retrofit present automobiles. A automotive can be a automotive.

The driving robotic can be a robotic. When the driving robotic will get into the automotive and sits behind the wheel, you might have a totally “backward suitable” strategy to automating the driving of automobiles. Because the robotic is sitting there on the wheel of the automotive, we’d hope and assume that it may well absolutely drive the automotive. By this I imply to recommend that the robotic can’t be solely partially proficient in driving a automotive. It could be absolutely equal to a human driver.

I understand that you might argue that maybe we’d cut up a few of the distinction, specifically juice up the automotive in order that it has some quantity of automation to have the ability to drive, after which have a robotic that additionally has a number of the means to drive. The automotive alone can’t drive itself. The robotic alone can’t drive a standard automotive. As an alternative, you may provide you with a semi-automated automotive that may be pushed by a semi-automated robotic. Positive, I suppose that’s a risk.

You may even recommend that this walking-talking sort of robotic won’t be absolutely succesful to drive a automotive and but produce other useful makes use of anyway. Perhaps it may possibly assist people into and out of the automotive. Perhaps it might do chores round your home like cleansing the home and cooking meals. In the meantime, it may also be considerably of a chauffeur, however provided that the automotive itself additionally has a few of the proficiency that maybe we can’t in any other case construct into the robotic.

For instance, the robotic won’t be outfitted with sensory units like LIDAR, radar, ultrasonic, and so on. These sensory units might be cumbersome and trigger the robotic design to get overly giant and cumbersome. Thus, the robotic must have these capabilities constructed into the automotive that it drives.

As soon as the robotic will get into the automotive, it is ready to plug into the AI system of the automotive and grow to be “at one” with the automotive. This symbiotic facet makes us obtain a one-plus-one equals two type of merger. Every helps the opposite. When the robotic is completed driving, it unplugs itself from the automotive and will get out of the automotive, shifting alongside to do no matter different chores or duties it could do.

Human Driver Steps into an Exoskeleton to Cut up Driving Activity

There’s one other strategy that additionally goes past in the present day’s traditional considering, specifically using a cobot and an exoskeleton. On this use case, a human that desires to drive a automotive will get right into a cobot exoskeleton first, after which steps into the automotive and sits on the steering wheel.

The human contributes sure features of the driving effort, whereas the cobot exoskeleton does different elements. In a single such state of affairs, the automotive is a standard automotive and all the driving activity is borne by the human sporting the cobot exoskeleton. One other state of affairs includes splitting the driving activity among the many human sporting the cobot exoskeleton and having some type of semi-autonomous options constructed into the automotive.

We then have these three general approaches concerned:

  •         AI-Built-in Driving: All the automation constructed into the autonomous self-driving automotive
  •         AI-Robotic Driving: All the automation for driving is constructed right into a robotic, the automotive is usually a typical automotive or have semi-autonomous options
  •         AI-Human Cobot Exoskeleton Driving: Human and a Cobot work collectively to drive a automotive, the automotive is usually a typical automotive or have semi-autonomous options

On this latter case, the human is taken into account in-the-loop of the driving.

I understand that for purists, the notion of retaining the human in-the-loop would appear to undermine the overarching aim of getting self-driving automobiles or at the least absolutely autonomous driving (observe that the AI-Robotic driving is just not strictly talking a self-driving automotive, as an alternative it’s a automotive that’s autonomously pushed by a robotic).

As a brief apart, some use the phrase robotic automotive, or the phrase of robo-car and robo-taxi, when referring to a self-driving automotive. I don’t like utilizing these wordings as a result of they confound the thought of a robotic driving a automotive with the notion of the AI-integrated strategy whereby the automotive drives itself. I understand you may recommend that there’s a “robotic” hidden contained in the self-driving automotive and subsequently need to name it a robotic or a robo-car, however I feel that’s an unlucky confounding. For me, if there actually is a robotic that’s going to step into the driving force’s seat, I’m Okay with saying it’s a robo-car or robotic automotive or robo-taxi, in any other case, if the AI-integrated strategy is getting used then I vote for calling it a self-driving automotive.

For extra concerning the naming of those sorts of automobiles, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/ai-reasons-call-self-driving-cars/

For why that is all a moonshot, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/self-driving-car-mother-ai-projects-moonshot/

For a number of the crossing the Rubicon challenges, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/crossing-the-rubicon-and-ai-self-driving-cars/

For why we perhaps ought to start-over on AI, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/starting-over-on-ai-and-self-driving-cars/

Having gotten that terminology conundrum off my chest, let’s get again to the facet that there are possible self-driving automotive purists which may have a hefty little bit of heartburn about probably protecting a human in-the-loop of driving a automotive.

There are a number of potential the reason why maintaining a human in-the-loop may make sense.

First, suppose that after making an attempt and making an attempt to take away the human from the loop of driving a automotive, AI improvement and developments are unable to realize a very autonomously pushed automotive. It doesn’t matter what tips or methods are devised and employed, think about that it simply shouldn’t be possible to reach at both a self-driving automotive of a Degree 5 or that there isn’t any means to assemble a robotic to take action both. What then?

I might recommend we might need to then discover a means to maintain the human in-the-loop. It could possibly be that we solely want the human for edge instances or nook instances of the driving activity. This is perhaps dicey in that I’ve already provided many explanation why co-sharing the driving process with people and automation could be problematic. In any case, the chances are that inexorably we’re going to as a society be aiming to extend the autonomous nature of automobiles and so having a human concerned, if that’s the one solution to get there, so be it, I suppose.

See my article concerning the risks of back-up human drivers: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/human-back-up-drivers-for-ai-self-driving-cars/

For my article about edge instances, see: https://aitrends.com/ai-insider/edge-problems-core-true-self-driving-cars-achieving-last-mile/

For my article concerning the boundaries of AI in terms of the driving process, see: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/ai-boundaries-and-self-driving-cars-the-driving-controls-debate/

For the character of a Turing check for AI self-driving automobiles, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/turing-test-ai-self-driving-cars/

One more reason to probably maintain the human in-the-loop of driving could be resulting from people insisting that the need to stay in-the-loop.

There are self-driving automotive pundits that say we should get rid of all human driving on our public roadways if we’re going to attain the vaunted life-saving objectives of getting self-driving automobiles. Apart from my earlier level that you simply can’t simply magically sweep underneath the rug the hundreds of thousands of present typical automobiles, and I’ve additionally countered and primarily debunked the declare that we’d merely alter our roadway infrastructure to have a two-tiered infrastructure, one for self-driving automobiles and one for human pushed automobiles, we should additionally think about the societal query of whether or not people will readily and willingly hand over their driving privilege.

I do know that the pundits would say that definitely individuals will gladly hand over their driver’s licenses in the event that they knew that by doing so they might save lives. I’d say that’s fairly a leap in logic and religion in how individuals assume and are motivated. I understand one other angle is that folks gained’t need to drive as soon as they get accustomed to the grand comfort of being self-driven. Once more, I’ve my doubts that everybody will see issues that means.

I suppose it might be that after asking for individuals to voluntarily cease driving themselves, and to then cope with people who gained’t capitulate willingly, there could possibly be a regulation that makes it unlawful for people to drive. These holdouts for human driving would then be caught and penalized. Perhaps if the tradition shifts and we progressively as a society not view driving as a sort of “proper” and start to see issues in a different way that you simply may have the ability to regulate legally this final remaining “you’ll take away the steering wheel from my lifeless chilly palms” phase of society. All of this appears a really lengthy methods off sooner or later.

In the meantime, again to the matter at hand. Let’s assume that for no matter purpose you want that there are these that may need to be human drivers or that we’d want human drivers to make the “final mile” towards almost full automation.

In that case, maybe the AI-Human cobot exoskeleton is perhaps useful. This blends collectively the human driving functionality with the cobot driving functionality and as augmented by the exoskeleton.

The exoskeleton may assist your use of the driving controls. The arms of the exoskeleton increase your arms when utilizing the steering wheel. The legs of the exoskeleton increase your legs when working the brake pedal and the accelerator pedal. The cobot could be controlling the exoskeleton legs and arms, and guiding your legs and arms as applicable through the driving activity.

There you’re, sitting within the driver’s seat, sporting your cobot exoskeleton. Whereas driving on the freeway, a automotive in one other lane begins to veer into your lane. Perhaps you failed to note the veering automotive, however thankfully the cobot did, which then guides your arms to show the steering wheel to keep away from the veering automotive, together with pushing additional on the accelerator pedal to get away from the intruding automotive. Saved by the cobot exoskeleton driving AI system.

Suppose you go to the corporate Friday night time social gathering and have a bit an excessive amount of to drink. You get into your automotive to drive house. You’re sporting the cobot exoskeleton once you get into the automotive (no have to have been sporting it on the firm celebration, until you are attempting to make some sort of style assertion!). Regardless that you in all probability shouldn’t be behind the wheel of a automotive, the cobot exoskeleton finally ends up doing a lot of the driving and will get you house in a single piece.

You may need some type of bodily disabilities that might usually inhibit your capacity to drive a automotive, and but the cobot exoskeletion might help you drive a automotive. You may want some cognitive added assist when driving a automotive, and the cobot exoskeletion can achieve this. Maybe novice teenage drivers could be required to initially put on a cobot exoskeletion go well with to assist in studying methods to drive a automotive. And so forth.

For the potential of brainjacking to get the final mile towards self-driving automobiles, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/brainjacking-self-driving-cars-mind-matter/

For the aged and self-driving automobiles, see my article: https://aitrends.com/ethics-and-social-issues/elderly-boon-bust-self-driving-cars/

For the singularity, see my article: https://aitrends.com/selfdrivingcars/singularity-and-ai-self-driving-cars/

For the reframing of self-driving automobiles, see my article: https://aitrends.com/ai-insider/reframing-ai-levels-for-self-driving-cars-bifurcation-of-autonomy/

Conclusion

For many individuals, the facet that we’d have self-driving automobiles is already a sort of science fiction story that seems to be coming true. Moreover, and individually, Cobots on our manufacturing unit flooring make sense. Exoskeletons make sense too, and particularly for working in conditions involving the bodily brute functionality that an exoskeleton can present. We’ve all seen numerous science fiction depictions of exoskeletons for particularly future army purposes, comparable to proven within the films The Matrix and in Fringe of Tomorrow.

Does it make sense to think about having cobot exoskeletons?

And in that case, wouldn’t it additional make sense to have ones that may assist people drive a automotive?

Looks like a somewhat radical notion.

Proper now, the trail seems to be the emergence of the AI-Built-in self-driving automotive at the start, after which perhaps the longshot can be an AI-Robotic self-driving automotive, if we in any other case can’t obtain the AI-Built-in strategy. The melding of a human driver and a cobot exoskeleton go well with to do driving doesn’t look like on any near-term horizon per se, however I don’t assume we will reject it solely and simply dismiss it absolutely out-of-hand.

In the meanwhile, I’d vote that we maintain our eyes open to prospects which may appear outrageous proper now, since we’d want to seek out options or need options additional down-the-road. I’m fascinated by making a cobot exoskeletion that would permit me to drive like a NASCAR driver, and in that case, don’t be stunned whenever you see me on the winner’s circle of the Indy 500. That shall be me waving, together with my cobot exoskeleton driver’s go well with.

Copyright 2018 Dr. Lance Eliot

This content material is initially posted on AI Developments.

 

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